Anatolia; parts of the Balkan Peninsula and eastern Europe; parts of the Maghrib

O”oman  empire




O’oman  empire  (1299–1923)   •  Anatolia;  parts  of  the  Balkan  Peninsula  and  eastern  Europe;  parts  of  the  Maghrib  (North

Africa  -­‐  excluding  Morocco),  the  Arabian  Peninsula;  and  Egypt   •  One  of  the  longest-­‐lasDng  dynasDes  in  world  history  -­‐-­‐ruled  over  a  vast  territory     •  Mehmed  II  captured  ConstanDnople  (May,  1453).  Istanbul  became  capital



O’oman  empire  (1299–1923)   •  Anatolia;  parts  of  the  Balkan  Peninsula  and  eastern  Europe;  parts  of  the  Maghrib  (North  Africa  -­‐  excluding

Morocco),  the  Arabian  Peninsula;  and  Egypt   •  One  of  the  longest-­‐lasDng  dynasDes  in  world  history  -­‐-­‐ruled  over  a  vast  territory     •  Mehmed  II  captured  ConstanDnople  (May,  1453).  Istanbul  became  capital     •  Defeated  Mamluks  in  Syria  in  1516  and  in  Egypt  in  1517.  Control  of  Mecca  &  Medina   •  Becomes  principal  Islamic  state   •  Many  O”oman  sultans  were  great  patrons  of  the  arts.



O”oman  empire  (1299–1923)   Why  did  the  O”oman  Empire  become  so  powerful  for  so  long?   •  Gunpowder

Great  Turkish  Bombard  (later  called  the  Dardanelles  gun)

Mehmed  II  or  Mehmed  the  Conqueror

•  Embraced  military  technology  –  including  gunpowder.     •  Mehmed  II  or  Mehmed  the  Conqueror.  thoroughly  recognized  the

potenDal  of  Western  military  hardware,    Many  previous  Islamic  powers  relied  on  Bow  and  arrow,  sword    and  shield.

•  Used  the  cannon  to  launch  large  cannonball  to  break  down  the  walls  of   many  forDfied  ciDes  –  including  ConstanDnople.

•  Great  Turkish  Bombard  invented  1450.  cast  in  bronze  capable  of  firing   stone  canon  balls  of  over  25  inches  in  width  over  several  miles.




O”oman  empire  (1299–1923)   Why  did  the  O”oman  Empire  become  so  powerful  for  so  long?   •  Gunpowder   •  Integrated  O”oman  government  and  Islamic  law

•  O”oman  sultans  (poliDcal  and  military  leader)  also  declared  themselves  caliphs   (religious  AND  poliDcal  leader  of  absolute  authority.  )

•  Took  over  the  leadership  of  Sunni  Islam.



O”oman  empire  (1299–1923)   Why  did  the  O”oman  Empire  become  so  powerful  for  so  long?   •  Gunpowder   •  Integrated  O”oman  government  and  Islamic  law   •  Structured  bureaucracy

•  Took  young  ChrisDan  boys  from  across  the  empire  –  taken  good  care  of  -­‐  loyal  only  to   the  sultan.  The  book  smart  ones  worked  in  the  palace,  others  in  the  military




O”oman  empire  (1299–1923)   Why  did  the  O”oman  Empire  become  so  powerful  for  so  long?   •  Gunpowder   •  Integrated  O”oman  government  and  Islamic  law   •  structured  bureaucracy   •  Great  wealth

•  O”oman’s  receiving  tax  money  across  the  empire

O”oman,  Dagger  with   Sheath,  18th  century,  H.   with  sheath  20  in.;  H.   without  sheath  18  1/2   in.;  H.  of  blade  13  1/4   in.  ;  W.  3  1/8  in;  D.   15/16  in.;  Wt.  15.2  oz.;   Wt.  of  sheath  4.6  oz



O”oman  empire  (1299–1923)   Why  did  the  O”oman  Empire  become  so  powerful  for  so  long?   •  Gunpowder   •  Integrated  O”oman  government  and  Islamic  law   •  structured  bureaucracy   •  Great  wealth   •  Known  internaDonally

•  InternaDonally  known.  The  face  of  Islam  –  in  charge  of  Mecca,  Medina,  Jerusalem  since   the  final  round  of  crusades.  Built  large,  austere  structures  similar  to  the  Hagia  Sophia

Eugène  Delacroix,  Turk   Seated  on  a  Sofa  Smoking   (A  Turk  Smoking  on  a   Divan),  1835?,  Oil  on   canvas,  24  x  32  cm,  Musee   du  Louvre



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37

Hagia  Sophia   •  Originally  a  ChrisDan  church   •  One  of  the  pieces  of  architecture  that  has  changed  the  course  of  architecture   •  Unique  in  the  6th  century  because  of  the  scale  (size)  and  design



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37  CE

Dome  more  than  180  feet  high  -­‐  highest  dome   ever  built.     -­‐Large  central  rectangle  space   -­‐Dome  in  center     -­‐Flanked  by  two  semi-­‐circles



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,   532-­‐37  CE   Structural  qualiDes  are   hidden



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37

Arabic  calligraphy    -­‐  ConstanDnople  conquered  by  the  O”oman  Turks.  Turned  it  into  a  mosque  in  1453.     Was  a  mosque  unDl  1934,  then  it  became  secularized  and  turned  into  a  museum.



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37   Mosque  1453,  Museum  1934

8  calligraphic  roundels  added  aher  conquest:  Allah,   Muhammad,  4  Righty  Guided  Caliphs  (Abu  Bakr,   Uthman,  Umar,  and  Ali),  and  last  two  are   Muhammad’s  grandsons.



Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37  CE

•  When  built  Hagia  Sophia  marked  a   new  ChrisDan  architecture.

•  Interior  creates  a  feeling  of  the   spiritual  world




Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37  CE



Suleyman  ruled  1520-­‐66   •  “the  Magnificent”   •  “the  Lawmaker”     •  regarded  as  a  “Golden  Age,”

defined  by  geographic  expansion,   trade,  and  economic  growth,  as   well  as  cultural  and  arDsDc  acDvity.

Sinan  (1491-­‐1588)   •  Chief  royal  architect  1538-­‐1588   •  Most  well-­‐known  Islamic  architect   •  Responsible  for  over  100  buildings

Melchior  Lorck,  (Danish  1527-­‐1564),  Sultan   Süleyman  and  the  Süleyman  Mosque,   ConstanDnople,  1554  (or  earlier)  ,  altered  in  1688  to   represent  Ibrahim  I  (Sultan  of  the  O”oman  Empire   from  1640  unDl  1648).;  Portrait  of  Sultan  Suleiman,   Engraving,  15  13/16  x  11  1/4  in



Tughra  -­‐  Official  Signature  of  Sultan  Süleiman  the  Magnificent  (r.  1520–66),  Ink,   opaque  watercolor,  and  gold  on  paper,  H.  20  1/2  in.  x  W.  25  3/8  in

O”oman  Turkish  is  translated  as:  “Suleiman,  son  of  Selim  Khan,  ever  victorious.”     Below,  in  gold,  it  reads:  “This  is  the  noble,  exalted,  brilliant  sign-­‐manual,  the  world-­‐illuminaDng  and   adoring  cipher  of  the  Khaqan  [may  it  be  made  efficient  by  the  aid  of  the  Lord  and  the  protecDon  of  the   Eternal].     His  order  is  that  […]”   •  Unique,  not  easily  read  or  copied.



O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,  1550-­‐1556,  Istanbul

O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of   Selimiye  Complex,  1568-­‐74,  Edirne,   Turkey,

•  Establishment  of  Corps  of  Royal   Architects  –  Sinan  as  leader

•  Imperial  style  across  empire   •  Architects  trained  in  the  capital   (Istanbul)  and  spread  the  style   throughout  the  empire

•  No  more  influence  of  different   regional  styles.



O”oman  exterior  composiDon:   •  Tall  slender  minarets   •  MulDple  grey  lead  covered  domes

O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,  1550-­‐1557

•  Basic  unit  is  dome  on  square



O”oman,  Mosque   Complex  of  Süleyman  I,   1550-­‐1557

Hagia  Sophia,  Istanbul,  532-­‐37

Sinan  created:   •  Pyramidal  cascade  of  smaller   domes  surrounding  the  large   dome,  mulD-­‐Dered  windows   •  Appearance  is  different  than   the  heavily  bu”ressed  Hagia   Sophia.



•  Tall  slender  minarets



O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,  1550-­‐1557     •  Smaller  domes  rise,  layered  on  step  plauorms  to  emphasize  the  colossal  dome,  which  is  flanked  by  two  half  domes



O”oman  exterior  composiDon:   •  White  stone  wall   •  Arched  openings  with  windows

O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,   1550-­‐1557



O”oman  architecture:   •  Arched  arcades



O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,  Exterior  view  of  courtyard  1550-­‐1556



O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Süleyman  I,  Interior  view  1550-­‐1556

FenestraDon  pays  a  large  part  in  the  decoraDon  of  the  interior.  Rhythm  and  balance  of  windows



•  Arched  openings    of  windows   •  Minimal  interior  decoraDon  -­‐  Two  tone  voussoirs



Central  dome    -­‐  flanked  by  two  half  domes




O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of   Selimiye  Complex,  1568-­‐74,  Edirne,   Turkey,  Date  of  photograph:  1990

•  White  stone  wall   •  Arched  openings  with  windows   •  Tall  slender  minarets   •  MulDple  grey  lead  covered  domes   •  Basic  unit  is  dome  on  square

Completed  when  Sinan  was  80  -­‐  final  masterpiece   •  Stresses  the  achievement  of  the  height  by   removing  the  two  side  ½  domes  and  the   cascading  domes.

•  Further  emphasized  the  central  dome  with  eight   short  pointed  turrets  (small  tower  on  a  large   tower)…and  then  further  framed  by  perfectly   symmetrical  minarets



O”oman,  Mosque   Complex  of  Selimiye   Complex,  1568-­‐74,   Edirne,  Turkey,  Date  of   photograph:  1990

Here  the  minarets  were   taller  and  narrower  than  any   other  structure.



O”oman,  Mosque  Complex  of  Selimiye  Complex,  1568-­‐74,  Edirne,  Turkey,  Date  of  photograph:  1990



Complex  of  Sultan  Ahmed  I  (Blue  Mosque)  Istanbul,  1609-­‐17

Sinan  death  in  1588.  Structure  completed  by  students



Complex  of  Sultan   Ahmed  I  (Blue   Mosque)  Istanbul,   interior,  1609-­‐17

•  Some  21,000  Iznik   Dles  on  the  inside

•  High  point  od   O”oman  ceramics   is  the  second  half  of   the  16th  century.   Thousands  of  Dles   being  produced  for   the  imperial   buildings  in  large   empire




Dish  depicDng  two  birds  among   flowering  plants,  Stonepaste;   polychrome  painted  under   transparent  glaze,  H.  2  3/8  in.     Diam.  of  rim:  11  3/16  in.,  1574

•  Similar  to  Chinese   porcelains

•  AddiDon  of  Iznik  red  – pigment  made  of  red   clay

O”oman  ceramics   •  Iznik  -­‐Center  of  the

producDon  of  ceramic   vessels  and  Dles  in  the   O”oman  empire.

•  Iznik  is  a  small  town  in   northwestern  Turkey



O”oman  Tile  panel,   Stonepaste;  polychrome   painted  under  transparent   glaze,  H.  53  5/16  in.,  W.  53  9/16   in.,  D.  2  3/8  in.  with  tabs  Wt.   194  lbs.


•  O”oman’s  very  bureaucraDc   society

•  Ceramic  producDon   controlled  by  the   government

•  O”oman  court  paid  fixed   prices,  but  po”ers  preferred   to  see  on  the  open  market  –   royal  decree  put  a  stop  to   that.




Dish  with  Cypress   Tree,  Saz  Leaves,   and  Roses,   1575-­‐80,   Stonepaste;   polychrome   painted  under   transparent  glaze,   H.  1  1/2  in.,     Diam.  11  7/8  in.



Underglaze  painted   Dles,  O”oman,  Mosque   Complex  of  Selimiye   Complex,  1568-­‐74,   Edirne,  Turkey,  Date  of   photograph:  1990

Iznik  -­‐  originally   disDncDve  red  color,   from  red  clay.  Eventually   came  to  mean  all  Dles   produced  there



TEXTILES:   Saz  style  -­‐   characterized  by  the   depicDon  of  stylized,   serrated  leaf  foliage,

Fragment  of  an  O”oman   Court  Carpet,  wool,  late   16th  century,  Rug:  L.  62   in.  W.  69  1/4  in.,  Wt.   21lbs



Gun  set  of  Mehmud  I,  1732,  O”oman  Turkey,   Jewled  gun,  with  pen  box,  spoon,  flintock   cleaner,  reed  pen  in  penholder,  pen  knife,   and  dagger.  Cut  and  polished  gemstones.

•  Royal  collecDons  express   power

•  Example  of    the  jeweled   tradiDon  in  O”oman   metalwork




The  grip,  guard,  and  pommel  are  gilded   silver,  set  with  emeralds  and  rubies,   and  engraved  with  abstract  designs.



Gun  set  of  Mehmud  I,  1732,  O”oman  Turkey,  Jewled  gun,  with  pen   box,  spoon,  flintock  cleaner,  reed  pen  in  penholder,  pen  knife,  and   dagger.  Cut  and  polished  gemstones.



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