Assign1: Wk2-4 Reading Reflection


Building on the success of its second edition, the third edition of The Sustainable Urban Development Reader offers an unrivalled selection of classic and contemporary readings and case studies providing a broad introduction to this key topic. It begins by tracing the roots of the sustainable development concept in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, before presenting readings on a number of dimen- sions of the sustainability concept.

Topics covered include land use and urban design, transportation, ecological planning and restoration, energy and materials use, economic development, social and environmental justice, and green architec- ture and building. All sections have a concise editorial introduction that places the selection in context and suggests further reading. Additional sections cover tools for sustainable development, sustainable development internationally, visions of sustainable community, and case studies from around the world. The book also includes educational exercises for individuals, university classes, or community groups, and an extensive list of recommended readings.

The anthology remains unique in presenting a broad array of classic and contemporary readings in this field, each with a concise introduction placing it within the context of this evolving discourse. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader presents an authoritative overview of the field using original sources in a highly readable format for university classes in urban studies, environmental studies, the social sciences, and related fields. It also makes a wide range of sustainable urban planning-related material available to the public in a clear and accessible way, forming an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the future of urban environments.

Stephen M. Wheeler is Associate Professor in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of California at Davis. Previously he taught at the University of New Mexico and the University of California at Berkeley. A member of the American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), he has been a consultant in the areas of smart growth, urban design, and sustainable development. He received Ph.D. and MCP degrees from U.C. Berkeley and a B.A. from Dartmouth College. Previously he edited the quarterly journal The Urban Ecologist and served as a lobbyist for Friends of the Earth in Washington, D.C. His articles have appeared in the Journal of the American Planning Association, Local Environment, and the Journal of Planning Education and Research. Besides The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, he is the author of Climate Change and Social Ecology (Routledge 2012) and Planning for Sustainability (Routledge 2004, 2013).

Timothy Beatley is Teresa Heinz Professor of Sustainable Communities in the School of Architecture at the University of Virginia, where he has taught for the last 28 years. His primary teaching and research interests are in environmental planning and policy, with special emphasis on community sustainability. He has published extensively on these subjects; his books include The Ecology of Place (1997, with Kristy Manning), Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities (2000), Native to Nowhere (2005), and Biophilic Cities (2011). His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Lincoln Institute for Land Policy, among others. Beatley holds a Ph.D. in City and Regional Planning from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.




Series editors

Richard T. LeGates Professor Emeritus of Urban Studies and Planning, San Francisco State University

Frederic Stout Lecturer in Urban Studies, Stanford University

The Routledge Urban Reader Series responds to the need for comprehensive coverage of the classic and essential texts that form the basis of intellectual work in the various academic disciplines and profes- sional fields concerned with cities and city planning.

The readers focus on the key topics encountered by undergraduates, graduate students, and scholars in urban studies, geography, sociology, political science, anthropology, economics, culture studies, and professional fields such as city and regional planning, urban design, architecture, environmental studies, international relations, and landscape architecture. They discuss the contributions of major theoreticians and practitioners and other individuals, groups, and organizations that study the city or practice in a field that directly affects the city.

As well as drawing together the best of classic and contemporary writings on the city, each reader features extensive introductions to the book, sections, and individual selections prepared by the volume editors to place the selections in context, illustrate relations among topics, provide information on the author, and point readers towards additional related bibliographic material.

Each reader contains:

Between thirty-five and sixty selections divided into six to eight sections. Almost all of the selections are previously published works that have appeared as journal articles or portions of books.

■ A general introduction describing the nature and purpose of the reader. ■ Section introductions for each section of the reader to place the readings in context. ■ Selection introductions for each selection describing the author, the intellectual background, and context

of the selection, competing views of the subject matter of the selection and bibliographic references to other readings by the same author and other readings related to the topic.

■ One or more plate sections and illustrations at the beginning of each section. ■ An index.

The series consists of the following titles:


The City Reader, fifth edition – an interdisciplinary urban reader aimed at urban studies, urban planning, urban geography, and urban sociology courses – is the anchor urban reader. Routledge published a first edition of The City Reader in 1996, a second edition in 2000, a third edition in 2003, and a fourth edition in 2007. The City Reader has become one of the most widely used anthologies in urban studies, urban geography, urban sociology, and urban planning courses in the world.




The series contains urban disciplinary readers organized around social science disciplines and professorial fields: urban sociology, urban geography, urban politics, urban and regional planning, and urban design. The urban disciplinary readers include both classic writings and recent, cutting-edge contributions to the respective disciplines. They are lively, high-quality, competitively priced readers which faculty can adopt as course texts and which also appeal to a wider audience.


The urban series includes topical urban readers intended both as primary and supplemental course texts and for the trade and professional market. The topical titles include readers related to sustainable urban development, global cities, cybercities, and city cultures.


The City Reader, fifth edition Richard T. LeGates and Frederic Stout (eds)


The Urban Geography Reader Nick Fyfe and Judith Kenny (eds)

The Urban Politics Reader Elizabeth Strom and John Mollenkopf (eds)

The Urban and Regional Planning Reader Eugenie Birch (ed.)

The Urban Sociology Reader, second edition Jan Lin and Christopher Mele (eds)

The Urban Design Reader, second edition Michael Larice and Elizabeth Macdonald (eds)


The City Cultures Reader, second edition Malcolm Miles, Tim Hall with Iain Borden (eds)

The Cybercities Reader Stephen Graham (ed.)

The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, second edition Stephen M. Wheeler and Timothy Beatley (eds)

The Global Cities Reader Neil Brenner and Roger Keil (eds)

Cities of the Global South Reader Faranak Miraftab and Neema Kudva (eds)


The City Reader, sixth edition Richard T. LeGates and Frederic Stout (eds)

For further information on The Routledge Urban Reader Series please visit our website:

or contact

Andrew Mould Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN England

Richard T. LeGates Department of Urban Studies and Planning San Francisco State University 1600 Holloway Avenue San Francisco, CA 94132 (510) 642-3256

Frederic Stout Urban Studies Program Stanford University Stanford, California 94305-2048



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The Sustainable Urban Development Reader

Third edition Edited by

Stephen M. Wheeler


Timothy Beatley



First published 2014 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

© 2014 Stephen Wheeler and Timothy Beatley

The right of the editors to be identified as the author of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Sustainable urban development reader / edited by Stephen M. Wheeler, Timothy Beatley. – Third edition.

pages cm. – (routledge urban reader series) 1. City planning. 2. Community development, Urban. 3. Sustainable urban

development. I. Wheeler, Stephen (Stephen Maxwell) editor of compilation. II. Beatley, Timothy, editor of compilation.

HT166.S9135 2014 307.1′416–dc23


ISBN: 978-0-415-70775-6 (hbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-70776-3 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-77036-9 (ebk)

Typeset in Amasis and Berthold Akzidenz Grotesk by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong




To Mimi and to the late Dave Brower, whose example and encouragement have been invaluable (SMW)

To Anneke and Carolena (TB)



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Acknowledgments xvii

Introduction to the third edition 1


Introduction 8

“The Three Magnets” and “The Town–Country Magnet” from Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898) 11 Ebenezer Howard

“Cities and the Crisis of Civilization” from The Culture of Cities (1938) 19 Lewis Mumford

“The Land Ethic” from A Sand County Almanac (1949) 24 Aldo Leopold

“Orthodox Planning and The North End” from The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) 34 Jane Jacobs

“Plight and Prospect” from Design With Nature (1969) 39 Ian L. McHarg

“The Development of Underdevelopment” from Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America (1967) 45 Andre Gunder Frank

“Perspectives, Problems, and Models” from The Limits to Growth (1972) 50 Donella Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jörgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III

“The Steady-State Economy” from Toward a Steady-State Economy (1973) 55 Herman Daly

“City and Nature” from The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design (1984) 61 Anne Whiston Spirn



C O N T E N T Sx

“Towards Sustainable Development” from Our Common Future (1987) 66 World Commission on Environment and Development

“The End of Nature” from The End of Nature (1989) 71 Bill McKibben

“The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development” and Introduction to Chapter 7 from Agenda 21 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) (1992), “Millennium Development Goals” and “Millennium Declaration” (2002) 79 United Nations


Introduction 88

Climate change planning 91

“Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies” from Science magazine (2004) 93 Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow

“Towards Low Carbon Urbanism” from Local Environment (2012) 101 Harriet Bulkeley, Vanesa Castan Broto, and Gareth Edwards

“The Urbanization of Climate Change: Responding to a New Global Challenge” from The Urban Transformation: Health, Shelter, and Climate Change (2013) 107 William Solecki, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Stephen Hammer, and Shagun Mehrotra

Land use and urban design 117

“The Next American Metropolis” from The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream (1993) 119 Peter Calthorpe

“Compactness vs. Sprawl” from Companion to Urban Design (2011) 130 Reid Ewing, Keith Bartholomew, and Arthur C. Nelson

“Infill Development” from Smart Infill (2002) 138 Stephen M. Wheeler

“Outdoor Space and Outdoor Activities” from Life Between Buildings (1980) 146 Jan Gehl

Transportation 151

“Transit and the Metropolis: Finding Harmony” from The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry (1998) 153 Robert Cervero



xiC O N T E N T S

“Traffic Calming” from Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence (1999) 161 Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy

“Cycling for Everyone: Lessons from Europe” from Transportation Research Record (2008) 168 John Pucher and Ralph Buehler

Environmental planning and restoration 179

“Biophilic Cities” from Biophilic Cities (2011) 181 Timothy Beatley

“What Is Restoration?” from Restoring Streams in Cities (1998) 184 Ann L. Riley

“Landscape Ecological Urbanism” from Landscape and Urban Planning (2011) 190 Frederick Steiner

Energy and materials use 195

“The Metabolism of Cities” from Creating Sustainable Cities (1999) 197 Herbert Girardet

“Harnessing Wind, Solar, and Geothermal Energy” from World on the Edge (2011) 205 Lester Brown

“The Changing Water Paradigm: A Look at Twenty-First Century Water Resources Development” from Water International (2000) 214 Peter H. Gleick

“Waste as a Resource” from Regenerative Design for Sustainable Development (1994) 224 John Tillman Lyle

Social equity and environmental justice 233

“People-of-Color Environmentalism” from Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (1990) 235 Robert Bullard

“Domesticating Urban Space” from Redesigning the American Dream: The Future of Housing, Work, and Family Life (2002) 242 Dolores Hayden

“Fighting Poverty and Environmental Injustice in Cities” from State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future (2007) 248 Janice E. Perlman with Molly O’Meara Sheehan



C O N T E N T Sxii

Economic development 261

“The Economic System and Natural Environments” from the Introduction and Conclusion to Blueprint for a Sustainable Economy (2000) 263 David Pearce and Edward B. Barbier

“Preparing for a New Economic Era” from Environment and Urbanization (1996) 269 David C. Korten

“Natural Capitalism” from Mother Jones (1997) 276 Paul Hawken

“Import Replacement” from Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in a Global Age (1998) 285 Michael Shuman

“Strengthening Local Economies” from State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future (2007) 293 Mark Roseland with Lena Soots

“Green Jobs” from Green Jobs: Working for People and the Environment (2008) 304 Michael Renner, Sean Seeney, Jill Kubit, and Lisa Mastny

Green architecture and building 309

“Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things”: A sermon given at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York City (1993) 311 William McDonough

“Principles of Green Architecture” from Green Architecture (1991) 318 Brenda Vale and Robert Vale

“Sustainability and Building Codes” from Environmental Building News (2001) 323 David Eisenberg and Peter Yost

“Introduction to the LEED® Rating System” 328 United States Green Building Council

“The Ten Commandments of Cost-Effective Green Building Design” from Green Building Through Integrated Design (2009) 334 Leith Sharp

Food systems and health 337

“The Food Movement, Rising” from The New York Review of Books (2010) 339 Michael Pollan

“The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply” from Stolen Harvest (2000) 344 Vandana Shiva



xiiiC O N T E N T S

“Physical Activity, Sprawl, and Health” from Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities (2004) 351 Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson

“Slow is Beautiful” from In Praise of Slowness (2004) 359 Carl Honoré


Introduction 366

“Urban Sustainability Reporting” from Journal of the American Planning Association (1996) 367 Virginia W. Maclaren

“What Is an Ecological Footprint?” from Our Ecological Footprint (1996) 375 Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees

“Seeing Change” from Looking at Cities (1985) 384 Allan Jacobs

“For Planners, Investment in Social Media Pays Dividends” from Planetizen, (2013) 389 Jessica Hsu

“Multilevel Governance for the Sustainability Transition” from Globalism, Localism and Identity: Fresh Perspectives on the Transition to Sustainability (2001) 392 Uno Svedin, Tim O’Riordan, and Andrew Jordan

“A Progressive Politics of Meaning” from The Politics of Meaning: Restoring Hope and Possibility in an Age of Cynicism (1993) 400 Michael Lerner

“The Story of Change” from The Story of Stuff Project (2012) 406 Annie Leonard


Introduction 410

“Urban Planning in Curitiba” from Scientific American (1996) 411 Jonas Rabinovich and Joseph Leitmann

“Planning for Sustainability in European Cities: A Review of Practice in Leading Cities” (2003; updated 2013) 422 Timothy Beatley



C O N T E N T Sxiv

“Collective Action Toward a Sustainable City: Citizens’ Movements and Environmental Politics in Taipei” from Livable Cities? Urban Struggles for Livelihood and Sustainability (2002) 432 Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao and Hwa-Jen Liu

“Sustainable Urban Development in China” (2013) 447 Kang-Li Wu

“Sustainable City: Crisis and Opportunity in Mexico” from Sustaining Cities: Urban Policies, Practices, and Perceptions (2013) 457 Alfonso Iracheta

“Climate Change in the Context of Urban Development in Africa” from Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Development in Africa and Asia (2011) 462 Kempe Ronald Hope, Sr.

“Protecting Eden: Setting Green Standards for the Tourism Industry” from Environment (2003) 468 Martha Honey


Introduction 478

“The Streets of Ecotopia’s Capital,” and “Car-Less Living in Ecotopia’s New Towns” from Ecotopia (1975) 481 Ernest Callenbach

“Description of Abbenay” from The Dispossessed (1974) 487 Ursula K. LeGuin

“The View from the Twenty-Third Century” (2008) 491 Stephen M. Wheeler


Urban sustainability at the building and site scale 497

Commerzbank Headquarters, Frankfurt, Germany 499 Menara Mesiniaga Bio-Climatic Skyscraper, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 500 Adelaide Eco-Village (Christie Walk), Australia 502 Condé Nast Building (4 Times Square), New York 504 Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China 506 Via Verde, New York 507 Barclay Ecological Park, Tainan, Taiwan 509



xvC O N T E N T S

Urban sustainability at the neighborhood or district scale 511

Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden 513 Kronsberg Ecological District, Hannover, Germany 515 Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED), London 516 Greenwich Millennium Village, London 518 Nieuwland (Solar Suburb), Amersfoort, Netherlands 520 Village Homes, Davis, California 521 U.C. Davis West Village, Davis, California 523 Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project, Seoul, South Korea 525 Weilai City Ecological Community, Dezhou, China 526 Shenzhen Overseas Chinese Town, China 527

Urban sustainability at the city and regional scale 531

Vancouver, British Columbia 533 Bogotá, Colombia 535 Gaviotas, Colombia 537 Paris, France 539 Auroville, India 540 IBA Emscher Park, Germany 543 London, England 545 Masdar, United Arab Emirates 547 Songdo, South Korea 549 Austin, Texas 551 New York City 553 Portland, Oregon 554 Burlington, Vermont 557 Oslo, Norway 559 Singapore 560


Introduction 564

“Sustainability Pedagogies” from Sustainability Education: Perspectives and Practice across Higher Education (2010) 565 Debbie Cotton and Jennie Winter

Cognitive Mapping Exercise 573 Future Visions Exercises 573 Definitions of Sustainable Development 574 Role Plays to Analyze Points of View and Sustainability Decision Making 575 Sustainability Indicators Exercise 577 Personal Ecological Footprints/Household Sustainability Audit/Carbon Calculators 578 First-Hand Analysis of Urban Environments 579 Regional Vision Exercise 580 Economic Development Exercise 581 Creek Mapping Exercise 583



C O N T E N T Sxvi

Neighborhood Planning Exercise 584 An Ecological Site Plan 585 International Development Exercise 586 Mapping Your Own Block 588 Using YouTube Videos on Sustainability 588 Class Debates on Urban Sustainability Themes 589 Studio or Service Learning Classes 589

Further reading 591 Illustration credits 596 Copyright information 601 Index 606




We would like to thank the many people who have made this volume possible, above all the contribu- tors, whose work continues to inspire us.

Series editor Richard T. LeGates first approached us with the idea of doing such a reader and has been a wonderful source of support and guidance during the process. Routledge’s City Reader, edited by LeGates and Frederick Stout, has been an excellent model and high standard for us to follow.

David Orr, Marcia McNally, Wicak Sarosa, Keiro Hattori, Kang-Li Wu, Herbert Girardet, Mark Rose- land, Richard LeGates, and four anonymous reviewers supplied very helpful comments on the contents and structure of the original edition of this book. Jana Carp, Maria Manta Conroy, Michael Larice, Elizabeth Macdonald, Rafael Pizarro, and four anonymous reviewers supplied very useful comments regarding the second edition, and seven more anonymous reviewers suggested additional material and revisions for the third edition. Thanks to all. Andrew Mould at Routledge has played a central role in making this book possible, while editorial assistants Faye Leerink and Sarah Gilkes, senior production editor Emma Hart, and copy editor Judith Oppenheimer skillfully guided the third edition into print. For assistance with previous editions, we would like to thank Melanie Attridge, Nicola Cooper, Ann King, Jennifer Page, Michael Jones, Vicky Claringbull, Ray Offord, and Lisa Salonen.

Over the years our students have been a great source of feedback on particular readings, and have challenged us to find material that does a good job of communicating sustainability concepts to those not yet familiar with the field. In addition, Stephen Wheeler would like to thank Mimi especially for her constant love and support as well as astute editorial comments during the process of preparing this Reader. Tim Beatley would like to thank, as always, his wife Anneke for her patience and love, and his daughter Carolena for her great energy and spirit (that keep him going).



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Since the first edition of this book appeared 10 years ago millions more people worldwide have embraced the goal of sustainable development, and new programs and courses on sustainability have appeared on hundreds of university campuses. Younger individuals especially recognize the urgency of the topic. Rising consciousness of global warming is one motivating factor. But other needs as well have come to the fore. Many activists and organizations are now rethinking food systems and developing new opportunities for urban agriculture. Another movement is concerned about public health, in particular the rising tide of obesity and physical inactivity in many countries, which is linked in part to the design of communities and economies. Renewable energy, water systems, and green jobs merit increased attention. New concepts such as “biophilic cities,” “slow cities,” and “landscape ecological urbanism” have come on the scene, and, as political systems seem more dysfunctional, we must consider how societies can develop more effective governance for sustainability.

This new edition contains additional readings on these and other topics. At the same time, we further develop our emphasis on thinking critically about urban sustainability in light of five years’ additional experience and information. There is a great deal of literature that enthusiastically promotes one aspect or another of sustainable cities. However, it is important to inquire deeply into how different concepts and practices may work, into how different parties view these subjects, and into how truly meaningful changes may be brought about. Sustainable urbanism is still a new and emerging field of study. Only through critical thinking and joint exploration can we deepen our collective understandings of it.

This edition benefits from the experience of many previous users of the Reader, both within and outside the classroom. In response to feedback we have added 16 new readings while cutting 4, have updated the introductions and suggested further readings throughout, and have revised and expanded the case study section. As with previous versions we have tried to frame each section and reading in a way that will help those new to the subject to understand it, while providing useful intellectual context and references for those readers who already have some background, and stimulating additional debate on questions to which there is no easy answer.

This edition still asks the same basic question: How can we plan and develop communities that will meet long-term human and environmental needs? This concept of sustainable urban development provides a way for citizens, planners, and policymakers worldwide to explore such questions.

The third edition of this book, like the previous ones, aims to provide readers with a wide, thought- provoking selection of writings on this timely subject. We now present an expanded selection of 63 readings related to sustainable community development, drawn from books, academic journals, and general interest magazines. Many of these are “classic” pieces which helped change their fields in various ways, and are important today in order to understand the sustainability discourse. Others are more contemporary readings reflecting current thought and activity. Extensive introductions put each reading in context, and more than two dozen case studies of sustainable urban development initiatives help illustrate the range of projects now underway. Since many of us learn most “by doing,” a final sec- tion of exercises related to sustainability planning helps individuals, students, or community groups work out their own detailed understandings of sustainable community planning.



I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E T H I R D E D I T I O N2

Though many of these writings are from North America, we have included pieces from Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa, and Australia, and consider many of the urban sustainability challenges addressed here to be universal. Cities and towns worldwide are facing similar problems of climate change, exces- sive motor vehicle use, suburban sprawl, pollution, profligate use of natural resources, rising inequities, and loss of indigenous landscapes and ecosystems. Communities in most parts of the world are also now confronted by a global economic system that frequently undercuts local traditions, businesses, community, environment, and sense of place. Though the context of urban development varies con- siderably from country to country, many sustainability strategies will be the same, for example, seeking to coordinate transportation and land use, restore urban ecosystems, or design the public realm so as to be friendly for women, children, and the …

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