ENGL 1101: Introduction to University Writing 1 Annotated Bibliography

ENGL 1101: Introduction to University Writing 1



Annotated Bibliography

Kritika Verma (T00673981)

Thompson River University

15 October 2020





Annotated Bibliography


This bibliography addresses the general topic of digital literacy and education. Researchers in the fields of education and technology are interested in the skills needed for the future, but significant debate exists about what those skills might be and why they are important. Therefore, this research is focused on the specific question of what skills will be essential in the 21st century to ensure we can access information and communicate effectively. This research was guided by the following questions:

1. How do we define digital technology? What are some examples?

2. How does it affect our access to the information? Is there a debate about this?

3. How does digital technology affect the way we communicate? Is there a debate about this?

4. What are the essential 21st-century skills needed to ensure we can succeed in a world shaped by digital technology? Is there a debate about this?

5. Do different fields of study have different views about what skills are necessary?

6. What skills will be necessary to ensure we can manage all the information that we have access to as a result of digital technology?

7. What skills will be necessary to ensure we can communicate effectively using digital technology?



Bergdahl, N., Nouri, J., & Fors, U. (2020). Disengagement, engagement and digital skills in technology-enhanced learning. Education and Information Technologies25(2), 957-983.

Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775-786. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x

Bullen, M., Morgan, T., & Qayyum, A. (2011). Digital learners in higher education: Generation is not the issue. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 37(1), 1-24. Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/

Gordon, C., Juang, L., & Syed, M. (2007). Internet use and well-being among college students: Beyond frequency of use. Journal of College Student Development, 48(6), 674-688. doi: 10.1353/csd.2007.0065

Smith, E. E., Kahlke, R., & Judd, T. (2018). From digital natives to digital literacy: Anchoring digital practices through learning design.(ASCILITE Presentation 2018).

Válek, J., & Sládek, P. (2012). Immersed into digital world: Learning and students’ perception. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences69, 1866-1870. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.139


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2 Annotated Bibliography



Article 1

Bennett, Maton and Kervin (2008) hold that the current education system is mainly made up of a digital generation that is technologically savvy. They argue that this generation, mainly of people born from the 1980s, posses’ significant differences from other generations and their teachers to the extent that the nature of the education system must also change to keep with the skills and the desires of the digital generation. However, the article evokes revelations of generalization of possession of the digital skills within the millennial generation. Different age groups posses’ various digital skills as well as the frequency and nature of children’s internet use differs with the age groups and socio-economic backgrounds. In a nutshell, a significant proportion of the digital natives shows that they are proficient with technology for information and communication purposes. However, the education system is doing little to keep up with the increasing capacity of the digital generation in building digital skills and knowledge, hence risking to fail a generation as well as facing imminent obsolescence.

The article “The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence” by Bennett, Maton, and Kervin (2008) retrieved from the ResearchGate journal is relevant for the research as it provides the foundation for digital literacy and education. The authors emphasize that although the millennial generation is proficient with the technology, the technological skills and use of the internet is not uniform as perceived by the public, thus not so different from their predecessors. This article will be useful in setting a foundation for incorporating digital literacy in the education system to help cultivate digital skills among the millennials (Bennett, Maton, and Kervin, 2008).


Article 2

According to the article “ Digital learners in higher education: Generation is not the issue” by Bullen, Morgan, and Qayyum (2011) evolution technology and the extent to which the net generation has impacted their behaviours, social characteristics, different use of ways of gathering and using information and the different expectations about life and learning (Bullen, Morgan, and Qayyum, 2011). Consequently, the education systems have been forced to make significant milestones in the organization, teaching and the application of technology. The findings of the researchers show that the extensive use of technology by millennials is influenced by the needs of their programs but limited by three key issues namely familiarity, cost and immediacy. The extensive use of technology by millennials more than the older generations shows that it has caused changes in the physical structure of the generation’s brains which allows them among other things, to multitask effectively. Furthermore, some boos have asserted that this generation is characterized by the need for freedom, integrity, scrutiny, collaboration, entertainment, innovation and speed. However, contrary to the general perception of the technical competence of the Net Generation, the article highlights that millennials only posses’ shallow skills such as using email and the internet and are not able to use advanced technological features. This concludes that there is a dire need for training in the use of Information Technology in the curriculum (Bullen, Morgan, and Qayyum, 2011).

The article is relevant for the research as it tries to explain the that with the ubiquitous use of technology by the Net Generation, there is a dire need for training to equip millennials with the appropriate skills that fit the hype around their technological immersion (Bullen, Morgan, Qayyum, 2011).

The authors hold that people need to move away from the generalization of the technological prowess of the Net Generation and develop ICT skills and competency in higher education. Furthermore, the source will be useful in answering the need for harnessing computer literacy in the Net Generation to make it useful in their lives (Bullen, Morgan, Qayyum, 2011).


Article 3


The article “Internet use and well-being among college students: Beyond frequency of use” by Gordon, Juang, and Syed (2007) asserts that college students are the leading users of the internet amongst other users and the use ranges from communication, gathering information, socializing as well as carrying out education projects. However, as the use of the internet gains momentum at a fast pace among college students, there is debate about whether the use of the internet causes psychological distress such as depression or and the vulnerability of the students to fall into internet addiction (Gordon, Juang, and Syed, 2007). The research shows that the use of the internet in colleges helps in the well-being of the students to a greater extent. For instance, the use of the internet helps students to interact with other people, hence helping them deal with depression and other mental issues (Gordon, Juang, and Syed, 2007). Secondly, the use of the internet helps in building family cohesion especially when colleges are far away from home. Communication through the internet helps the students to keep in touch with their loved ones. More importantly, college students use the internet in seeking new information and new trends across the world, hence helping them sharpen their scope of knowledge in their programs. The article is relevant for the study as it provides in-depth findings that would help researchers base their research and answer the research questions (Gordon, Juang, and Syed, 2007).

The researchers hold that the various uses of information technology are related to the well-being of the students in terms of depression, social anxiety and family cohesion. The source will be useful for students to learn effective skills that can help students use Information Technology to improve their well-being in colleges (Gordon, Juang, and Syed, 2007).


Article 4


There is a huge gap between the digital natives and the digital immigrants in the Information Technology arena. This research problem has helped the authors of the article “From digital natives to digital literacy: Anchoring digital practices through learning design” by Smith, Kahlke, and Judd (2018) to develop a unifying tool that would bridge the digital literacy gap between the two groups. Firstly, to achieve this milestone, ICT needs to be integrated into the education process to avoid the loss of competitiveness of future generations in the future world who are heavily dependent on computers (Smith, Kahlke, and Judd, 2018). However, the dissemination of the skills in schools would be controlled by parents and teachers. Teachers should also prepare extensively for education in the information society to ensure that the capacity to develop digital literacy increases proportionately. Digital immigrants and digital natives should all explore teaching in the information society. The curriculum should also be modified to ensure the digital natives learn more digital skills apart from the basic uses of technology for communication, entertainment and instant messaging (Smith, Kahkle, and Judd, 2018). Besides, the students and teachers should make good use of the google.com to ensure they learn new information about information technology. This article from the Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal would be relevant as it would help the researcher to develop the necessary methodologies of developing digital literacy. The author holds that for effective dissemination of digital skills, teachers and students should accept the fast-paced changes in technology. This article will be useful in the research in answering the research questions such as the skills required by different groups and the necessary skills to ensure people manage the information (Smith, Kahkle, 2018).


Article 5

According to the article “Immersed into the digital world: Learning and students’ perception” written by Valek and Sladek (2012), the common stereotype that the digital natives are inherently technological savvy should be abandoned and focus on digital literacy since a significant proportion of the digital natives do not possess’ adequate technological skills. Consequently, the educational technology community should take up this responsibility by implementing a long-lasting and meaningful change in technology. Whereas digital natives are characterized by freedom, integrity, multitasking, immediate gratification and prefer working in groups, they also need to be digital literate (Valek & Sladek, 2012). This means in addition to using computers, they have to master information and communication technology skills that can help them in providing solutions for problems. Importantly, it is essential to develop the skills to avoid the negative effects of the stereotypes such as the assumptions by the educators that the digital natives do not require training. Therefore, educators facilitate effective digital practices through effective learning design (Valek & Sladek, 2012). In particular, educators should focus on aligning the technological affordances and learning outcomes, addressing learner competencies and characteristics, facilitating collaborative knowledge and creating opportunities for practice and scaffolding. This article is relevant as it provides educators with the appropriate remedies for bridging digital natives to digital literacy. The authors hold that the increasing desire for digital literacy provides an appropriate opportunity for educators to provide the digital natives with appropriate digital skills and shun the pre-existing digital natives’ stereotypes. Finally, the article will be useful in answering the question of the necessary skills that the learners should acquire to be digital literate (Valek & Sladek, 2012).


Article 6

The education sector is making strides in digitalizing the learning to ensure that the millennials do not get dissatisfied by the lack of education systems that suits their technological savvy. However, while digitalization is taking shape, the creation of digital sills has remained widely unexplored (Bergdal, Nouri, and Fors, 2020). Students should be highly engaged in the Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL) since the research shows that engagement highly correlates with digital skills. According to the research, learners recorded low grades as a result of the excessive use of computers. However, it was evident that the students were using the technologies for the wrong reasons only, hence the poor results in classwork. Consequently, students who scored high grades also use technologies but to expand their knowledge (Bergdal, Nouri, and Fors, 2020). Therefore, there is a dire need to remove the inequality in students’ skills by revolutionizing the rules of engagement when using technologies. Digital skills are necessary for students to manage their education, however not all students possess these vital skills (Bergdal, Nouri, and Fors, 2020). Also, the research shows the few students who have the basic skills might have learnt them outside the school, thus implicating the need for schools to firstly provide digital skills to students before rolling out the Technology-enhanced Learning (Bergdal, Nouri, and Fors, 2020).

The article “Disengagement, engagement and digital skills in technology-enhanced learning” by Bergdahl, Nouri, and Fors (2020) retrieved from Education and Information technologies journal, is relevant as it provides the researchers with a clear picture of the inequality in the use of technology among high performing and low performing students.

The researchers conclude that lack of engagement remains the leading factor of the inequality in the acquisition of digital skills (Bergdal, Nouri, and Fors, 2020).


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