ENGL147N-60265 Discussions Week 6 Discussion 2: Deceptive…! “

ENGL147N-60265 Discussions Week 6 Discussion 2: Deceptive…!

This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible

due Aug 19 at 1:59am

Week 6 Discussion 2: Deceptive Arguments

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Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 6 Lesson Link (library article): Fear Advertisements: Influencing Consumers to Make Better Health Decisions Link (library article): Fear Appeals in Social Marketing: The Case of Anti-Speeding Video Advertisement “Mistakes”

Apply the following writing resources to your posts:

Link (multimedia presentation): Citing References in Text Link (website): APA Citation and Writing

Initial Post Instructions

Part 1: Research & Review Review the two articles in Required Resources on the uses of logical fallacies and rhetorical appeals in the healthcare field.

The Krishen and Bui (2015) article discusses the active use of logical fallacies to manipulate obese consumers into making better health choices through two oppositional approaches: fear tactics and positive reinforcement.

The Giachino, Stupino, Peratulo, and Bertoldi (2017) article presents a study of fear tactics applied through social advertising, similar to the ads we discussed in our Week 3 discussion boards. Students were exposed to fear advertising in an attempt to reduce high speed driving.

Part 2: Application Apply what you have learned about logical fallacies and rhetorical appeals to interpret and summarize the articles. Consider the following questions:

If the participants are aware of misleading manipulation techniques, are they immune to their effects? What are the limitations of these types of fear inducing tactics? How would you react if you were a subject in one of these studies? What can we take away from these articles to apply in our own topics? Where else have you seen these types of fear tactics applied (e.g., advertising, social media, word of mouth, etc.)? Are these other mediums effective? Why is that the case?

Cite your sources in APA format.

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Offer additional insight into your peers’ responses by furthering the discussion. Did you notice any inconstancies in the persuasive methods applied that your peer might have missed? Did you notice any other specific logical fallacies in your peer’s response? Have you ever fallen prey to the types of fear tactics commonly used in your classmate’s topic? Provide an example if so. If not, how were you able to avoid susceptibility?

Note: If you see that someone has already received feedback from two peers, please choose to help a peer who has yet to obtain feedback.

Writing Requirements

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

Course Outcomes (CO): 2

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday


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THERESA GERGELA (Instructor) Jun 9, 2019

# Reply ‘

Hi all,

Welcome! As you know, the discussion opens up on Monday, August 12, and please include an outside resource in your initial post. Do you think that sometimes logical fallacies may be valid or useful? Or are they ultimately false? What about cases that may be lighthearted/humorous, or serious cases where a “scare” may actually influence someone to improve, for example, a lifestyle behavior? What role do you think ethical influence or behavior plays, and might there be two sides or is fear in advertising simply misleading?

Simpson makes the point that marketers use differing strategies to encourage behavior modification regarding health and healthcare, including emotional and fear appeals. “An appeal to fear in an argument can be valid or fallacious depending on whether the facts (premises) presented are true or false. The fallacy occurs when the level of fear created does not relate to the truth of the claim” (Simpson, 2017).

I’m sure we’ll have an interesting discussion here, and I look forward to your thoughts, reactions and observations.

Thanks for all your efforts thus far!


Simpson, J. K. (2017). Appeal to fear in health care: Appropriate or inappropriate? Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 1-10. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=ccm&AN=125268932&site=eds- live&scope=site



Teresa Starner 1:29pm

# Reply ‘

I believe the degree of immunity to misleading manipulation techniques depends on the subject or product. For instance the popular shock ads for smoking cessation show people with trachs, facial deformities from surgeries to remove cancer, etc. Although most people are aware these things are possible outcomes from smoking they also know this does not happen to every smoker. They base their decision to quit or continue smoking on their personal health issues, personal experiences, and resolutions. On the other hand most people do not want to stink or have sweat marks on their shirt so if they see an ad for a new deodorant that promises to keep this from happening they will probably buy it even though the current products on the market are just as efficient. It is all relevant to the situation. Consumer education levels do play a role in susceptibility as well. Naivety does increase the risk of being manipulated.

According to Magloff (2019) research has shown if the fear message is too strong it will have a negative effect for the advertiser. People avoid what is unpleasant to them. They will ignore the advertisements.

If I was subjected to one of these studies I would certainly become more suspicious of any ad. It would make me uncertain of every advertisers transparency as it pertains to their product.

When writing my paper I will try to steer away from overly strong fear tactics while still providing factual information and outcomes on the subject. I will use a calm tone when writing which will help me “avoid overheated language” (Seyler & Brizee, 2018, p. 99). Since I am writing about a controversial topic I will need to use a conciliatory approach.

I see these tactics everyday from advertisements to pharmaceutical reps trying to convince us why their new medication should be used. Again, I revert back to it is all relative to the product. All we can do as consumers is try to educate ourselves and do not respond to the shock factor until we have enough information to make a reasonable decision.


Magloff, Lisa. (n.d.). Fear Appraisal in Advertising. Small Business –

Chron.com. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/fear-

appraisal- advertising-18259.htm

Seyler, D. U., & Brizee, A. (2018). Read, reason, write: An argument text and

reader. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

THERESA GERGELA (Instructor) 3:31pm

# Reply ‘

Hi Teresa,

Thanks for your post!

Excellent comments on the possibility of the effects that susceptibility and naiveté may have in such tactics that use fear and/or hope intentionally; how people respond to fear or feel or even acknowledge fear, personal experience, personality, care/interest, are all just a few considerations. Before/after pics can be effective; for example, a commercial just might hit someone depressed about his or her weight just at the right time, and he/she may impulsively pick up the phone and order Nutrisystem. I note, for example, that many weight loss commercials bombard the airwaves right around New Year’s (resolution time).

For me, reading about a new law in Florida that took effect in July will instill fear in me to not text and drive. I’m one of those drivers who doesn’t need any further fear tactics other than the fear of getting a ticket or seeing a flashing light on my tail!



Cindy Pemberton Yesterday

# Reply ‘

Hello Professor & classmates,

I believe that if the participants were aware of the manipulation tactics of the advertisers, they would be immune to the effects of it. Knowledge is always power and the more you know, the more empowered you are to make rational decisions. The studies show that fear advertisement evokes an emotional stimuli to coerce participants into a particular decision (Giachino, Stupino, Pertrarulo & Bertoldi, 2017). Some of the limitations with these types of fear inducing tactics are for one the participant has to view the advertisement to get its intended effect, so if they don’t watch they are not affected. Another limitation is that the advertisers has limited time to do advertisements. If I were to be a subject in one of these studies, I would not be very happy, I don’t feel that a person should be manipulated in any form to get a desired outcome.


The only thing I can take away from these articles to use in my topic, is the visual image it will help to depict, as imagery is important to appealing to a person’s senses and helping them to make a decision. I have seen this type of tactics used on social media and word of mouth quite often, and I believe it is effective because it tests a person’s logical reasoning in a need or desire. I saw an advertisement the other day on social media for a hair growth solution from China, it showed a lady losing her hair with bald patches and then when she used the solution for one month, her hair miraculously grew back. To a person losing their hair, especially a woman, this would compel them to do the logical thing and go buy the solution. This would be perceived as an argument that meets standards in sound logic (Seyler & Brizee, 2018, p. 158).



Giachino, C., Stupino, M., Petrarulo, G., & Bertoldi, B. (2017). Fear appeals in social

marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”. Journal of

Customer Behaviour, 16(1), 61-74. https://doi- org.chamberlainuniversity. idm.oclc.



Seyler, D. U., & Brizee, A. (2018). Read, reason, write: An argument text and reader. New

York, NY: McGraw-Hill



THERESA GERGELA (Instructor) 3:52pm

# Reply ‘

Hi, Cindy,

Thanks for your discussion, and your comments on possibilities of limitations on fear-inducing texts or visuals.

Would you say both of these articles use fear tactics, or discuss the effectiveness and use of them in the same fashion/stance?

I think you bring up a valid point when you talk about how some people may actually resent, if discovered or discussed overtly, the conscious attempt to use fear tactics and manipulation on the participants; I think that obviously not everyone would react in a similar fashion, but you definitely bring out one possibility. And, we could also highlight the idea that when used carefully or judiciously, in conjunction, perhaps, with solid evidence, fear tactics can add to one’s persuasiveness.

APA: looks good; just remember ending period for text reference.




Kimberly Delancy Yesterday

# Reply ‘

Professor Theresa & Classmates,

Social norms have preconditioned us to fear what is perceived as harmful. Fear tactics are used in advertising in order to gain the consumers trust and eventually buy in to whatever is being sold. I don’t believe that participants would be any less immune to these effects even if they were aware of the misleading manipulation techniques. Limitations to these tactics include the consumers themselves. The participant has to have an emotional connection to the advertisement in order to be affected by or fear it. Another limitation is the time constraint of a recorded advertisement. The writer’s argument has to include the claim, grounds, and warrant in a limited amount of time. According to Brizee, arguers attempt to divert the attention from the issues and focus more on the emotions of the consumer (2018). As a participant in one of the studies, I’m not sure how I would react. I’m tempted to say that I would feel hoodwinked and taken advantage of, but the truth is this happens to us every day. These fear tactics are seen on television advertisements, especially those regarding health and diet. Fear tactics are used in pharmaceutical ads as well as in grocery stores. I believe these are powerful and effective because as consumers we are always looking for the next “quick” results or game changer. My take away will be applying the effects of appealing to the audience emotions. Appealing to emotions in my argument won’t necessarily induce fear, but awareness to the facts with evidence.


Kimberly Delancy, RN


Seyler, D. U., & Brizee, A. (2018). Read, reason, write: An argument text and reader. New

York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Teresa Starner Yesterday

# Reply ‘


I agree with your conclusion. Most people are not even aware they are being manipulated. The advertisers’ are extremely talented at masking their intents. I believe we have all been subjected to fear tactics in advertisement in some form. We buy vitamins because we fear not being healthy, a certain brand of diapers because we do not want our baby to feel wet and be uncomfortable.

Mohammed (2017) stated:

Everyone is fearful of something — Part of every purchase made by the consumer is based on some sort of fear. It does not matter what product or service you are selling, you can still tap ‘Fear’ emotion to increase your market share, or launch a new variant or add new value proposition of your product/service.


Mohammed, S. (2017). The examples of ‘fear appeal’ in advertising –

emotional branding. Medium retrieved from

https://medium.com/@shahmm/neglect-the- fear-emotion-and-your-

brand-would-pay-penalty-in-the-later-life- 30ef3cf9f032

THERESA GERGELA (Instructor) Yesterday

# Reply ‘

Hi Teresa,

I would agree that many people are unaware of manipulation techniques; some might be, but the question remains how or in what way might they still be affected? I wonder if preconceived beliefs play a role. For example, guilt!


Teresa Starner Yesterday

# Reply ‘

I absolutely think preconceived ideas and previous life experiences play a role. How may they still be affected? Well, in my opinion, we all keep making the same mistakes until we learn from them so I guess the long term effect will depend on the individual’s ability to discern the truth.

THERESA GERGELA (Instructor) 3:32pm

# Reply ‘


Agreed. And, it may even come down to a particular day, a certain mood, a sudden thought . . . human psyche is too complicated to wrap up in a neat box that is easily explained!


Cindy Pemberton 9:25am

# Reply ‘

Hi Kimberly,

I gree with you in the reason fear tactics are used, but I can’t say the same for the rest of your reasoning. I do believe that participants would be more immune to the effects of manipulation techniques in that, they would have prior knowledge of it and unless they are totally ignorant, they would ponder on that knowledge and make an informed decision.

Being a nurse has increased my knowledge and experience on many levels, and I am able to live a healthier life because of it. I also educate my family and friends regarding their health, so they do not fall prey to these manipulating advertisements. They thank me for my teachings, because they are able to have a better understanding of certain body functions, including what is regarded as good and bad for the body. So again, I stronly believe education is key in empowering individuals on all levels in any situation.


Kimberly Evans Yesterday

When thinking of advertisements using the fear factor, one specific commercial comes to mind. It shows a woman who appears very ill who has had a tracheotomy encouraging people not to smoke. It is a sad consequence of smoking resulting from cancer. According to Krishen and Bui (2015), visual imagery should be powerful when using the fear for persuasion. It amazes me that people who see this can continue to smoke. It is however so extreme that it may lose its effectiveness. (Giachino, Stupino, Petrarula, & Bertoldi, 2017) Maybe they feel this cannot happen to them.

After reading these articles, I have found there are so many variables to take into consideration. Considering the anti-speeding study. I feel that it would have more affect on a parent versus a young college student. As a mother and a grandmother this touches me deeply. Maybe younger people would be better affected by a positive outcome, such as in the end of the advertisement, the driver slowing down and the accident was avoided. The next scene could be of the child at home opening Christmas presents.

In the article about making better health decisions, it seems that decisions are more goal oriented. Krishen and Bui (2015) assert that people buy things based on what they view as the results. If I see an advertisement of a product that claims to make me look better, I consider buying the product. Advertisements do have a strong influence on many. I think associating positive things with positive outcomes is very effective. I also believe that if people think they are being misled, they will not succumb to the advertiser’s tactics. I do plan to use fear of the cognitive and physical effects of marijuana to persuade the reader that recreational

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