Kouros (Youth). ca. 600–590 BCE • First free-standing human sculpture (no additional supports to keep upright).

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Art History Unit 3: The Ancient Greek World

 

 

2 / 21 Temple Plans: Reading Architectural Drawings

 

 

3 / 21 Ground plan of a typical Greek Temple (Parthenon model)

 

 

4 / 21 Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles in elevation

 

 

5 / 21 The Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), ca. 550 BCE, and the Temple of Hera II (“Temple of Poseidon”), ca. 500 BCE Example of an Archaic Greek temple, created using the Doric Architectural Order.

 

 

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Kouros (Youth). ca. 600–590 BCE • First free-standing human sculpture (no additional supports to keep upright).

• Archaic style: frontal design, stylized hair, features, and proportions (learned

from observing the Ancient Egyptians.

• The idealized youth is a Greek concept where the Gods were personified in

beautiful human forms. In life, the pursuit of achieving a perfected physique

was considered an act of Godliness.

• Male youths were often portrayed nude, as it was customary for men to be

nude in society.

 

 

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Kore, from Chios (?). ca. 520 BCE • Kore: Greek for female youth.

• Archaic Age: stylized features and dress.

• Archaic sculptures are characterized by their Archaic smile.

• Women were always portrayed fully clothed, as was expected of

them in society.

 

 

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Battle of the Gods and Giants, from the north frieze of the Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi. ca. 530 BCE • As the Greeks developed their own style of art, they learned techniques for

creating space in their work, a three dimensional quality that does not exist in

the art of the Egyptians, or any other civilization of this time.

• The figures are no longer portrayed side by side, but rather, in layers. This

layering creates space.

• Figures in the foreground are carved with more dimension, while figures in the

background are carved more shallow. This too creates space.

 

 

9 / 21 Dying Warrior, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia. ca. 480 BCE This sculpture was meant to fit within the pediment, the triangular space created

by the temple roof. As the Greeks were creating sculptures to decorate specific

sections of the temples, they experimented with more life-like body positions.

The Archaic smile is still evident, and dates this piece to the Archaic Age.

 

 

10 / 21 Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice. Black-figured amphora signed by Exekias as painter andpotter. ca. 540–530 BCE The artistic development seen in sculpture is also reflected in their pottery. Early

examples are created using the black figure technique, with stylized features and

clothing. Then they would put all the pieces together, which creates the iconic

Egyptian style.

 

 

11 / 21 Euthymides. Dancing Revelers. Red-figured amphora. ca. 510–500 BCE In contrast, the red figure technique shows a greater focus on creating realistic human forms.

 

 

12 / 21 The Classical Age: Kritios Boy. ca. 480 BCE In the Classical Age, the pursuit of life like representations of the kouros becomes more realized.

 

 

13 / 21 Iktinos and Kallikrates. The Parthenon (view from the west), ca. 447–432 BCE An iconic Greek temple created in the Classical Age, using the traditional

Doric architectural order.

 

 

14 / 21 Three Goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon. ca. 438–432 BCE A sculpture created for the Parthenon pediment. Drapery is created in a highly realistic way, with the true forms of the goddesses

revealed through the folds of fabric.

 

 

15 / 21 Frieze above the western entrance of the cella of the Parthenon. ca. 440–432 BCE Upon closer inspection, while the exterior architrave is Doric, the interior is Ionic, as indicated by the continuous

frieze: a sculpted frieze of a continuous image, without any spaces or breaks.

 

 

16 / 21 Theater at Epidauros. Early third to second centuries BCE The Ancient Greeks were the first to design a perfectly acoustic theater, where all spectators had a clear view of the stage. It is a design still used today.

 

 

17 / 21 Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos. Temple of Apollo. Begun 313 BCE Example of the style of theatricality, where traditional Greek designs were altered to create an experience of drama.

 

 

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Lysippos. Portrait of Alexander the Great, the “Azara herm.” Roman copy after an original of the late fourth century BCE • Alexander the Great, a military leader known for united a divided Greek

republic, marks the Hellenistic Age and the quest for theatricality.

• Stylistically, the Hellenistic Age further improved upon the methods of

creating beautifully proportionate and life-like human figures, with a flair for

the dramatic.

• Introduces the concept of portraiture, images representing individuals

instead of an ideal man.

 

 

19 / 21 Epigonos of Pergamon (?). Dying Trumpeter. Perhaps a Roman copy after a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE

 

 

20 / 21 The Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon (restored) ca.180 BCE Rather than use the Ionic tradition of a continuous frieze above the columns, this victory monument has a larger

than life frieze along the bottom, allowing the viewer to experience the story in a more realistic, dramatic way.

 

 

21 / 21 Athena and Alkyoneus, from the east side of the Great Frieze of the Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon. ca. 180 BCE A close up of this frieze reveals figures wrought with action, agony, and emotion.

Figures twist and turn in a theatrical rendition of a war story.

 

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