PSYC 6245: Social Psychology Research Methods Quiz In this quiz, you will be provided summaries of five studies in social psychology. For each study described below, select the correct answer to the multiple-choice and short-answer questions. 1. For all of the five studies, identify the specific research method from the multiple-choice list of options. 2. If it is a quantitative study, identify the independent and dependent variables and determine the hypothesis.3. If it is a qualitative study, identify the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored. By Day 7 of Week 2: Complete and submit the quiz. 1. Researchers (Dexter et al., 1998) wanted to know what impact, if any, the consumption of violent movies has on attitudes toward women. Participants at a large, midwestern university viewed either (a) a slasher film daily for 1 week, (b) Three slasher films in 1 week, or (c) a George Pierrot adventure travelogue. Slasher films feature the slicing and dicing of young women’s bodies (e.g., The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, 1974). In the week following the film viewing, all participants were escorted to the campus law school where they were asked to observe law students try a rape case in a mock trial; participants’ task was to evaluate the performance of all parties to the trial. A Likert-style questionnaire (1=not at all; 9=extremely) completed by participants included evaluations of the respective attorneys, the defendant, and the accuser. Examples were:• How sympathetic is she/he?• How attractive is she/he?• How intelligent is she/he?• How likeable is she/he? Reference: Dexter, H. R., Penrod, S., Linz, D., & Saunders, D. (1998). Attributing responsibility to female victims after exposure to sexually violent films: The effects of victim-observer similarity, situational relevance, and mass media induced emotional arousal. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(24), 2149-2171. a) What is the research method employed in this study? (Highlight the correct answer) A. ObservationalB. CorrelationalC. ExperimentalD. Phenomenological E. Case Study If a quantitative study, b) What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? c) What is the hypothesis for this study? If a qualitative study, d) What is the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored? 2. A pair of psychologists are interested in the effects of mood in helping (based on Isen & Levin, 1972). They give participants free tickets to a happy movie. They then have a confederate drop papers in front of the people who just got out of the movie, and people who are only walking by and have not just seen a happy movie for free. The researchers watch to see if the participants help pick up the dropped papers. Reference: Isen, A. M., & Levin, P. F. (1972). Effect of feeling good on helping: Cookies and kindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21(3), 384–388. a) What is the research method employed in this study? (Highlight the correct answer) A. ObservationalB. CorrelationalC. Experimental D. Phenomenological E. Case Study If a quantitative study, b) What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? c) What is the hypothesis for this study? If a qualitative study, d) What is the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored? 3. Researchers are interested in personal experiences of Indian adolescent girls with regard to gender discrimination and how they feel about the discrimination (Sarkar, 2003). All of the participants used in this study are female. Participants are interviewed with a set of semi-structured, open ended questions in an individual setting and in focus groups. Reference: Sarkar, S. (2010). Cross-cultural examination of psychological well-being in India and Sri Lanka. Paper accepted and to be presented as a part of the Symposium “Exploring psychological well-being in culturally diverse populations: Methodological innovations”, chaired by B. K. Nastasi at the American Psychological Association’s 112th annual convention (August 2010, San Diego). a) What is the qualitative research method employed in this study? (Highlight the correct answer) A. ObservationalB. CorrelationalC. ExperimentalD. Phenomenological E. Case Study If a quantitative study, b) What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? c) What is the hypothesis for this study? . If a qualitative study, d) What is the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored? 4. Researchers (Reifman, Larrick, & Fein, 1991) were interested in the factors causing aggression. They looked at an entire baseball season’s worth of news reports. For each game, they recorded the temperature of the locale and the number of batters who were hit by pitched balls. Reference: Reifman, A. S., Larrick, R. P., & Fein, S. (1991). Temper and temperature on the diamond: The heat-aggression relationship in major league baseball. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(5), 580–585. a) What is the research method employed in this study? (Highlight the correct answer) A. ObservationalB. CorrelationalC. ExperimentalD. Phenomenological E. Case Study If a quantitative study, b) What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? c) What is the hypothesis for this study? If a qualitative study, e) What is the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored? 5. Researchers are interested in influences on self-esteem. Half of the participants used in this study are male and half are female. Participants are given a set of anagram problems to solve in a 5-minute period. Half are randomly assigned to receive very easy anagrams and half are given difficult ones. After completing as many of the anagrams as they can, participants are given a questionnaire labeled “Thoughts and Feelings Questionnaire” that is really a measure of self-esteem. a) What is the research method employed in this study? (Highlight the correct answer) A. ObservationalB. CorrelationalC. ExperimentalD. Phenomenological E. Case Study If a quantitative study, b) What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? c) What is the hypothesis for this study? If a qualitative study, f) What is the concept or phenomenon of interest being explored? By Day 7: Complete and submit

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Corey Willis

All 3 items have their own representation to the people of their time. I found that the Minoan Snake Goddess and the Totem Pole both have common similarities as they both can interpret a strong spiritual meaning. With the Totem Pole, it’s comprised of an actual totem which can symbolize a spirit, tribe, family, or an individual. I find it interesting that the average person would think that when someone dies or they elect to create a Totem Pole remembering someone, that you actually pick the animal to place at the top of the pole, but theoretically the animal has already picked you based off a persons past and present. The animal itself acts as the main guardian spirit throughout their lives and after. Each animal can depict different characteristics or beliefs as well as far as the cultural considerations.

In contrast to the Totem Pole, the Minoan Snake Goddess also interprets a spiritual belief. The Minoan Snake Goddess is picture of a woman in power holding two snakes. Each serpent represents two different worlds; one the access to spiritual wisdom, and her ultimate power of transformation. She stands in between them to create a bridge of the two worlds in an attempt to bring them together. In the Minoan culture, women were predominately in charge since there was a lack in temples or places of worship. The Minoan Snake Goddess was found in c. 1600 BCE. As mentioned previously, the Snake Goddess to me, was in close comparison with the Totem Pole being that they both had a spiritual common theme.

The Giotto Crucifix of Santa Maria Novella has it’s own interpretation and definitely differs from the other two. This painting gives off a sense of suffrage and pain. The crucifix, which stands nineteen feet high, depicts Christ’s body strung on a cross with Virgin Mary and St. John facing him on each side. I believe this symbolizes the final moments of Christ’s death as you can see the blood flowing down from his limbs, muscles in distress, and head down showing a sign of execution. In this piece, it’s amazing how the artist managed to make everything look so real, from the hair to the bones helping the viewer dive deeper into the meaning of this painting. Giotto’s Crucifix of Santa Maria Novella was made roughly between 1288-1289, then later on reconstructed in 2000. This piece was inspired by the School of Franciscan, which has a Roman Catholic religious belief. In conclusion, all three of these pieces have an interesting story as to how they’re similar and also how they differ.

Brandon White

From the research that I performed, I’ve learned that each object has it’s own representation to the civilizations that created it during it’s time. With the Giotto Crucifix of Santa Maria Novella, it comes with it’s own interpretation, style, and art as compared to the other two. However, it mostly appears to be the style and material that puts the three apart so differently. With the Giotto Crucifix, it is what I would say is a tempera painting, while the Totem Pole is a carved and painted log, and the Minoan Snake Goddess is made up of frescoes and painted pottery. Each object, at it’s core, seemed to be of both spiritual and religious importance at the end of the day.

The Giotto Crucifix, is, from what I understand of it, meant to symbolize the final moment of Christ’s death. The details in both the body, blood, and the piece itself shows how far the artist might have gone to properly pay respects to either their religion, or a religion they understood. In a way, the piece shows off the suffering and sacrifice that Jesus Christ made for his people, and, as far as I understand it, symbolizes him dying for the sins of his people, as far as religion would say. The Minoan Snake Goddess is instead a statue of a woman holding one snake in each hand. Each one is suppose to represent something different, such as access to spiritual wisdom, but I was unsure as to what the other stood for. She is considered to be a “bridge” between the two by some. Interestingly enough, in Minoan culture, it is also claimed that women were primarily in charge, as compared to the opposite for most of the world during that time period. Finally, the Totem Pole is considered a marker and respect of one’s passing. The animal carved into the top is suppose to be the animal that has been guiding and protecting the life of the one who has fallen, and even in the afterlife, will guide and protect him. A spirit animal, if you will.

Overall, I think all of them are similar, yet different at the same time. The reasons they were made are quite similar – spiritual respect, religion, worship, and more. Perhaps even simply understanding. Meanwhile, their design and material all differs vastly as mentioned. Each one had a different design, and was made from a different material.

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