Three signs that alcohol abuse is the cause of Peggy Fender’s hospital visit is the bruises on her face, legs and arms over her body. These bruises occur because of clotting factors known as prothrombin which is produced in the liver are slowed due to excessive drinking. The elevated transaminase levels in her blood because her hepatocytes are being destroyed and finally the fact that she has jaundice because her liver isn’t able to process bilirubin a yellow-orange pigment so that it can be excreted in bile in time.
Lysosomes play a major role in the liver being able to remove toxins from our blood stream because they break down large protein and lipid molecules for easier digestion. Peroxisomes are microbodies that have enzymes that oxidize things that are harmful to our bodies such as the alcohol in Peggy’s case. Finally, smooth endoplasmic reticulum detoxifies alcohol and other things that could harm our body.
Bilirubin is an orangish/yellowish substance that happens when the heme part of your red blood cells breaks off of old RBC’s that have aged and is then passed in bile. It is removed from the body through defecation. Peggy is becoming jaundiced because her
liver isn’t able to metabolize and breakdown bilirubin how it is supposed to leading to cirrhosis of the liver which is scarring of the liver.
The clotting proteins needed are produced in the liver and because the hepatocytes are
damaged it causes slower production of cells needed when Peggy falls down or bumps
into things from being intoxicated.
Majority of blood that travels through the liver is brought there through the portal
vein, ensuring nutrient rich blood is supplied to the liver. The rest of the blood runs
through the hepatic artery which is oxygen rich. The terminal branches of the portal vein
is where the blood mixes together and enters the sinusoids. It then saturates which is
needed for the hepatocytes to clean and process blood and nutrients properly.
Increase in hydrostatic pressure occurs because the hepatic portal vein becomes
blocked because of Peggy’s excessive alcohol intake. High hydrostatic pressure in the
hepatic capillaries can cause fluid to leak inside the interstitial fluid of the stomach.
Albumin a buffer in our body is produced in the liver and acts as a barrier of transportation for molecules. They’re too large to be diffused into the capillary wall causing them to become stuck in blood vessels therefore increasing osmotic pressure causing the ascites.
Tortora, G. J., Derrickson, B. H. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781119320647/